Vol. 6 No. 2 (2021): Turkish Journal of Marketing

The mediating role of security and privacy on the relationship between customer interface features and e-word of mouth marketing

Assist. Prof., Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey

Published 2021-08-24


  • Müşteri Arayüz Özellikleri, Güvenlik ve Gizlilik, Elektronik Ağızdan Ağıza Pazarlama
  • Customer Interface Features, Security and Privacy, Electronic Word of Mouth Marketing

How to Cite

YÜRÜK-KAYAPINAR, P. (2021). The mediating role of security and privacy on the relationship between customer interface features and e-word of mouth marketing. Turkish Journal of Marketing, 6(2), 125-142. https://doi.org/10.30685/tujom.v6i2.118


Recent developments in technology have led to an increase in Internet usage by consumers and businesses. This study examines the relationships between customer interface features, security and privacy, electronic word of mouth marketing and online purchasing intentions. In order to examine these relationships, a total of 438 consumers were reached from Edirne, Tekirdağ and Kırklareli provinces by using the convenience sampling method. According to the research aim, consumers who made purchases via e-commerce sites were selected, and data were collected by interviewing these people face to face. In order to analyze the collected data, first explanatory and confirmatory factor analyzes were applied and then the hypotheses were tested with the structural equation model. According to the results, customization and character directly affect security and privacy, whereas interaction, character, and customization directly affect electronic word of mouth marketing. Thus, security and privacy have a significant direct effect on the electronic mouth of mouth marketing, while customization has a significant direct effect on online purchasing intention. In addition, customization and character significantly affect electronic word of mouth marketing through the mediating role of security and privacy.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Ackerman, M. S., Cranor, L. F. & Reagle, J. (1999). Privacy in e-commerce: examining user scenarios and privacy preferences. Paper Presented at the 1st ACM conference on Electronic commerce (1-8). ACM.
  2. Aladwani, A. M. & Palvia, P. C. (2002). Developing and Validating an Instrument for Measuring User-Perceived Web Quality. Information & Management, 39, 467-476.
  3. Alpar, R. (2013). Uygulamalı Çok Değişkenli İstatistiksel Yöntemler. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  4. Altaş, D. & Çinko, M. (2003). Bootstrap yönteminin Ridge Regresyonda uygulanması. Uludağ Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 22(1), 281-292.
  5. Antón, A. I., Earp, J. B. & Reese, A. (2002). Analyzing website privacy requirements using a privacy goal taxonomy. In Proceedings IEEE Joint International Conference on Requirements Engineering (23-31). IEEE.
  6. Ardiansah, M., Chariri, A., Rahardja, S., & Udin, U. (2020). The effect of electronic payments security on e-commerce consumer perception: An extended model of technology acceptance. Management Science Letters, 10(7), 1473-1480.
  7. Belanger, F., Hiller, J. S. & Smith, W. J. (2002). Trustworthiness in electronic commerce: the role of privacy, security, and site attributes. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3-4), 245-270.
  8. Bickart, B. & Schindler, R. B. (2001). Internet forums as influential sources of consumer information. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(3), 31–40.
  9. Bridges E. & Florsheim, R. (2008). Hedonic and utilitarian shopping goals: the online experience. Journal of Business Research, 61(4), 309–314.
  10. Brown, J., Broderick, A. J. & Lee, N. (2007). Word of mouth communication within online communities: conceptualizing the online social network. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), 2–20.
  11. Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modelling with Amos, Basic Consepts, Applications, and Programing. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.
  12. Cengiz, E. & Şekerkaya, A. (2010). İnternet kullanıcılarının Internetten alışverişe yönelik satın alma karar süreçlerinin incelenmesi ve kullanım yoğunlukları açısından sınıflandırılması üzerine bir araştırma. Öneri Dergisi, 9(33), 33-49.
  13. Chang, H. H. & Chen, S.W. (2008a). The impact of customer interface quality, satisfaction and switching costs on e-loyalty: Internet experience as a moderator. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2927-2944.
  14. Chang, H. H. & Chen, S. W. (2008b). The impact of online store environment cues on purchase intention: trust and perceived risk as a mediator. Online Information Review, 32(6), 818-841.
  15. Chevalier, J. A. & Mayzlin, D. (2006). The effect of word of mouth on sales: online book reviews’, Journal of Marketing Research, 43(3), 345–354.
  16. Chung, K. H. & Shin, J. I. (2010). The antecedents and consequents of relationship quality in Internet shopping. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(4), 473-491.
  17. Constantinides, E. (2004). Influencing the online consumer's behavior: The Web experience. Internet research, 14(2), 111-126.
  18. Corbitt, B. J., Thanasankit, T. & Yi, H. (2003). trust and e-commerce: a study of consumer perceptions. Electronic commerce research and applications, 2(3), 203-215.
  19. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), .297–334.
  20. Efron, B. (1979). Bootstrap methods: another look at the jackknife. The Annals of Statistics, 7(1), 1-26.
  21. Erkan, I. & Evans, C. (2016). Social media or shopping websites? the influence of ewom on consumers’ online purchase intentions. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(6), 617–632.
  22. Fabrigar, L. R., Maccallum, R. C., Wegener, D. T. & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Method, 4(3), 277-299.
  23. Forgas-Coll, S., Palau-Saumell, R., Sanchez-Garcia, J. & Fandos-Roig, J. C. (2013). Airline website loyalty formation and the moderating effects of gender and education. Service Business, 7, 255-274.
  24. Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F., (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.
  25. Gefen, D. (2000). E-commerce: the role of familiarity and trust. Omega, 28(6), 725-737.
  26. Gegez, A. E. (2010). Pazarlama Araştırmaları. İstanbul: Beta Yayıncılık, 3. Baskı.
  27. Girsang, M. J., Hendayani, R., & Ganesan, Y. (2020). Can Information Security, Privacy and Satisfaction Influence The E-Commerce Consumer Trust?. In 2020 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
  28. Ha, Y. & Im, H. (2012). Role of web site design quality in satisfaction and word of mouth generation. Journal of Service Management, 23(1), 79-96.
  29. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective. ABD: Pearson, 7. Baskı.
  30. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., & Babin, B. J. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. Pearson Education.
  31. Hair, J. J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & G. Kuppelwieser, V. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS‐SEM) an emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106–121.
  32. Hayes, A. F., Preacher, K. J., & Myers, T. A. (2011). Mediation and the estimation of indirect effects in political communication research. In P. Bucy, & R. L. Holbert (Eds.), The sourcebook for political communication Research: Methods, measures, and analytical techniques (pp. 434e465). New York: Routledge.
  33. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. New York: Guilford Press.
  34. Heijden, H. V. D., Verhagen, T. & Creemers, M. (2003). Understanding online purchase intentions: contributions from technology and trust perspectives. European Journal of Information Systems, 12, 41-48.
  35. Ho C. & Lee, Y. L. (2007). The development of an e-travel service quality scale. Tourism Management, 28(6), 1434–1449.
  36. Hooper, D., Coughlan, J. & Mullen, M., (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60.
  37. Huang, C.-C., Wang, Y.-M., Wu, T.-W. & Wang, P.-A. (2013). An empirical analysis of the antecedents and performance consequences of using the moodle platform. International Journal of Informationa nd Education Technology, 3(2), 217-221.
  38. Hui, K-L., Teo, H. H. & Lee, S-Y.T. (2007). The value of privacy assurance: an exploratory field experiment. MIS Quarterly, 31(1), 19–33.
  39. Hu, L. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.
  40. Islam, H., Jebarajakirthy, C., & Shankar, A. (2021). An experimental based investigation into the effects of website interactivity on customer behavior in online purchase context. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 29(2), 117-140.
  41. Kaiser, H. F. & Rice, J. (1974). Little Jiffy Mark IV. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 34, 111-117.
  42. Kayapınar, Ö. (2018). Pazarlama araştırmalarında güncel gelişmeler. Altuğ, N. & Özhan, Ş. (Ed.). Pazarlamada Güncel Gelişmeler. (ss.571-603). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
  43. Kazmi, S. H. A., Hai, L. C. & Abid M. M. (2016). Online purchase ıntentions in e-commerce. 8. International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics.
  44. Kim, E Y. & Kim, Y. K. (2004). Predicting online purchase intentions for clothing products. European Journal of Marketing, 38(7), 883-897.
  45. Kim, D. J., Ferrin, D. L. & Rao, H. R. (2008). A trust-based consumer decision-making model in electronic commerce: the role of trust, perceived risk, and their antecedents. Decision Support Systems, 44, 544-564.
  46. Kim, J., Jin, B. & Swinney, J. L. (2009). The role of etail quality, e-satisfaction and e-trust in online loyalty development process. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16, 239-247.
  47. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.
  48. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modelling. New York: The Guilford Press.
  49. Jalilvand, M. R. & Samiei, N. (2012). The effect of electronic word of mouth on brand image and purchase intention: an empirical study in the automobile industry in Iran. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 30(4), 460-476.
  50. Lee, Y. E. & Benbasat, I. (2004). A framework for the study of customer interface design for mobile commerce. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(3), 79-102.
  51. Li, Y. (2014). The impact of disposition to privacy, website reputation and website familiarity on information privacy concerns. Decision support systems, 57, 343-354.
  52. Lim, Y. J., Osman, A., Salahuddin, S. N., Romle, A. R. & Abdullah, S. (2016). Factors influencing online shopping behaviour: the mediating role of purchase intention. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 401-410.
  53. López, M. & Sicilia, M. (2014). Determinants of E-WOM influence: the role of consumers’ Internet experience. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 9(1), 28-43.
  54. Martínez-Navarro, J. & Bigné, E. (2017). The value of marketer-generated content on social network sites: media antecedents and behavioral responses. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 18(1), 52–72.
  55. McCole, P., Ramsey, E. & Williams, J. (2010). Trust considerations on attitudes towards online purchasing: The moderating effect of privacy and security concerns. Journal of Business Research, 63, (9-10), 1018-1024.
  56. McDowell, W. C., Wilson, R. C. & Kile, C. O. (2016). An examination of retail website design and conversion rate. Journal of Business Research, 69, 4837-4842.
  57. Mirabi, V., Akbariyeh, H. & Tahmasebifard, H. (2015). A study of factors affecting on customers purchase intention, case study: the agencies of bono brand tile in Tehran. Journal of Multidiciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, 2(1), 267-273.
  58. Miyazaki, A. D. & Fernandez, A. (2001). Consumer perceptions of privacy and security risks for online shopping. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 35(1), 27-44.
  59. Ngarmwongnoi, C., Oliveira, J. S., AbedRabbo, M., & Mousavi, S. (2020). The implications of eWOM adoption on the customer journey. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 37(7), 749-759.
  60. Perreault, W. D. & Russ, F. A., (1976). Physical distribution service in industrial purchase decisions. Journal of Marketing, 40(2), 3–10.
  61. Perreault, W. D. Jr, & Leigh, L. E. (1989). Reliability of nominal data based on qualitative judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 26(2), 135–148.
  62. Peter, J. P. (1981). Construct validity: A review of basic issues and marketing practices. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(2), 133–145.
  63. Peterson, R. A. (1994). A meta-analysis of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(2),.381–391.
  64. Rosario, A. B., de Valck, K., & Sotgiu, F. (2020). Conceptualizing the electronic word-of-mouth process: What we know and need to know about eWOM creation, exposure, and evaluation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48(3), 422-448.
  65. Sam, M., Fazli, M. & Tahir, M. N. H. (2009). Website quality and consumer online purchase intention of air ticket. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 9(10), 20-25.
  66. Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. & Müller, H., (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23–74.
  67. Schaffer, E. (2000). A better way for web design. Information Week, 784, 194–195.
  68. Schlosser, A. E., White, T. B. & Lloyd, S. M. (2006). Converting web site visitors into buyers: how web site investment increases consumer trusting beliefs and online purchase intentions. Journal of Marketing, 70(2), 133-148.
  69. See-To, E. W. K. & Ho, K. K. W. (2014). Value co-creation and purchase intention in social network sites: the role of electronic word-of-mouth and trust – a theoretical analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 182–189.
  70. Serra-Cantallops, A., Cardona, J. R., & Salvi, F. (2020). Antecedents of positive eWOM in hotels. Exploring the relative role of satisfaction, quality and positive emotional experiences. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(11), 3457-3477.
  71. Siahaya, J. C., Amelia, & Suryaputra, R. (2021). Analysis of the effect of application design, customer service, security and privacy, and fulfilment dimensions to customer satisfaction and repurchase intention of Blibli.com customers in Surabaya. International Journal of Research Publications, 69(1), 367-382.
  72. Sin, L. & Tse, A. (2002). Profiling Internet shoppers in Hong Kong: demographic, psychographic, attitudinal and experiential factors. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(1), 7-29.
  73. Slyke, C. V. (2002). Gender differences in perceptions of web-based shopping. Communications of the ACM, 47(7), 82-86.
  74. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. Sociological methodology, 13, 290-312.
  75. Srinivasan, S. S., Anderson, R. & Ponnavolu, K. (2002). Customer loyaty in e-commerce: an exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Journal of Retailing, 78, 41-50.
  76. Szymanski, D. M. & Hise, R. T. (2000). E-satisfaction: an initial examination. Journal of Retailing, 76(3), 309-322.
  77. Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics. New Jersey: Pearson.
  78. Thamizhvanan, A. & Xavier, M. J. (2013). Determinants of customers’ online purchase ıntention: an empirical study in India. Journal of Indian Business Research, 5(1), 17-32.
  79. Tran, G. A., Strutton, D. & Taylor, D. G. (2012). Do microblog postings influence consumer perceptions of retailers' e-servicescapes?. Management Research Review, 35(9), 818-836.
  80. Ulker‐Demirel, E., Yuruk‐Kayapinar, P., & Kayapinar, O. (2020). The role of consumer ethnocentrism on boycott behaviour: What if a domestic business behaves egregiously?. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration. Early view.
  81. Verhagen, T. & Dolen, W. V. (2009). Online purchase intentions: a multi-channel store image perspective. Information & Management, 46, 77-82.
  82. Vila, T. D., González, E. A., Vila, N. A., & Brea, J. A. F. (2021). Indicators of Website Features in the User Experience of E-Tourism Search and Metasearch Engines. Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research, 16(1), 18-36.
  83. Wang, Y.D. & Emurian, H.H. (2005). Trust in e-commerce: consideration of interface design factors. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 3(4), 42–60.
  84. Wolfinbarger, M. & Gilly, M. C. (2003). eTailQ: dimensionalizing, measuring and predicting etail quality. Journal of Retailing, 79, 183-198.
  85. Yoo, B. & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing a scale to measure the perceived quality of an internet shopping site (SITEQUAL). Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce, 2(1), 31-47.
  86. Yoo, C. W., Sanders, G. L. & Moon, J. (2013). Exploring the effect of e-WOM participation on e-Loyalty in e-commerce. Decision Support Systems, 55(3), 669-678.
  87. Yuruk-Kayapinar, P. (2020). Digital Consumer Behavior in an Omnichannel World. In Managing Customer Experiences in an Omnichannel World: Melody of Online and Offline Environments in the Customer Journey. Emerald Publishing Limited.
  88. Zhang, Y., Fiore, A. M., Zhang, L., & Liu, X. (2020). Impact of website design features on experiential value and patronage intention toward online mass customization sites. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 25(2), 205-223.