DO THE EFFECTS OF BRAND PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS ON BRAND LOYALTY CHANGE ACCORDING TO CONSUMERS’ PERSONALITIES?
- Brand Personality,
- Brand Loyalty,
- Consumer Personalities
- Marka Kişiliği,
- Marka Sadakati,
- Tüketici Kişilikleri
How to Cite
Mobile phones, especially the smart ones are becoming a main need for millions of people from all ages. Producers pay attention to develop a repeat purchasing behavior among their customers, aiming to resale their updated models. Brands play an important role in facilitating and affecting customer’s choice process, especially for high-technology products. Brand loyalty concerns the behavior of rebuying and at the same time, the antecedents causing that actual behavior. This study aims to study the relationships between consumer personality, brand personality and brand loyalty with data collected from 394 participants by two questionnaires (for Samsung and Apple) using convenience sampling method. Questionnaires are designed by using CAD scale of Cohen (1967), brand personality scale of Aaker (1997) and brand loyalty scale of Chaudhuri and Holbrook (2001). Four groups of hypotheses were tested with regression analyses and one group by comparing means. Findings include statistically significant results.
- Aaker, D.A. (1997), “Dimensions of Brand Personality”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 4, p. 47-56.
- Aaker, J. L., Benet- artínez, V., & Garolera, J. (2001), “Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(3), 492- 508.
- Akın M. (2011), “Predicting Consumers’ Behavioral Intentions with Perceptions of Brand Personality: A Study in Cell Phone Markets”, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 6, No. 6, p. 193-206.
- Aksoy L., Özsomer A. (2007), “Türkiye’de Marka Kişiliği Oluşturan Boyutlar”, 12. Ulusal Pazarlama Kongresi, Sakarya Üniversitesi, p. 1-14.
- Avis M., “Brand Personality Factor Based odels: A Critical Review”, Australasian Marketing Journal, 20, p. 89–96.
- Aydın S., Ceylan H.H., Aydın E. (2014), “A Research on Reference Behavior Trend According to Horney’s Personality Types”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, p. 680-685.
- Bloemer, J. M. M., Kasper, J.D.P. (1995), “The Complex Relationship Between Consumer Satisfaction And Brand Loyalty”, Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 16, p. 311-329.
- Bosnjak, M., Bochmann, V., & Hufschmidt, T. (2007). Dimensions of brand personality attributions: A person- centric approach in the German cultural context. Social Behavior and Personality, 35(3), 303 − 316.
- Caprara G.V., Barbaranelli C., Guido G. (2001), “Brand Personality: How to Take the Metaphor Fit?”, Journal of Economic Psychology, 22, p. 377-395.
- Chaudhuri A., Holbrook . B. (2001), “The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty”, Journal of Marketing, Apr 2001, 65, 2, p. 81-93.
- Chung S., Park J. (2017), “The Influence of Brand Personality and Relative Brand Identification On Brand Loyalty In The European Mobile Phone Market”, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 4: p.47–62.
- Cohen J. B. (1967), “An Interpersonal Orientation to the Study of Consumer Behavior”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. IV, August 1967, p. 270-8.
- Costa P.T., McCrae R.R. (1992), Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor (NEO- FFI) professional manual, Odessa, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.
- Dick A.S., Basu K. (1994), "Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22 (Winter), p. 99-113.
- Dissanayake R.D.M., Amarasuriya T. (2015), “Role Of Brand Identity In Developing Global Brands: A Literature Based Review On Case Comparison Between Apple Iphone vs Samsung Smartphone Brands”, Research Journal of Business and Management – (RJBM), Vol 2, Issue 3, p. 430-440.
- Doyle, P. (1990), “Building successful brands: the strategic options”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 5-20.
- Ekhlassi A., Nezhad . H., Far S. A., Rahmani . (2012), “The relationship between brand personality and customer personality, gender and income: A case studyof the cell phone market in Iran”, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, Vol. 20, 3/4, 158–171.
- Ferrandi JM., Valette-Florence P., Fine-Falcy S. (2015) “Aaker’s Brand Personality Scale in a French Context: A Replication and a Preliminary est of Its Validity”, In: Spotts H., eadow H. (eds) Proceedings of the 2000 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science, Springer, Cham
- Fettahlıoğlu H. (2015), “Marka Kişiliği, Marka Sadakati İlişkisi: Akıllı Telefon Kullanıcıları Örneği”, Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, Year: , N. 9, p. 210-227.
- Fournier S. (1998), “Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research”, Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 24, Issue 4, 1 March 1998, Pages 343–373.
- Fullwood C., Quinn S., Kaye L. K., Redding C. (2017), “My virtual friend: A qualitative analysis of the attitudes and experiences of Smartphone users: Implications for Smartphone attachment”, Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 347-355.
- Geuens M, Weijters B., De Wulf, C. (2009), “A New Measure of Brand Personality”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26, p. 97-107.
- GFK (2016), http://www.gfk.com/tr/icgoerueler/press-release/tuerkiyede-ve-duenyada-akilli-telefon-pazarlari/
- accessed 25.11.2017.
- Huang H. H. C. (2009), “Self-Identity and Consumption: A Study of Consumer Personality, Brand Personality, and Brand Relationship”, PhD Thesis, University of Warwick, U.K.
- IDC Report (2016), “International Data Corporation 2016 2nd Quarter Smartphone Sales”, https://shiftdelete.net/akilli-telefon-satis-rakamlari-aciklandi-73896, accessed at 25.11.2017
- Jacoby J., Chestnut R. W. (1978), Brand Loyalty Measurement and Management, New York: Wiley.
- Jacoby J., Kyner D. B. (197 ), “Brand Loyalty vs Repeat Purchasing Behavior”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 1-9.
- John O.P., Srivastava S. (1999), “The Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement and Theoretical Perspectives”, In: Pervin LA, John OP (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 2nd ed., New York: Guilford Press, p.102-138.
- John, O. P., Naumann L. P., Soto C. J. (2008), ‘‘Paradigm Shift to the Integrative Big Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Conceptual Issues.’’ In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 3rd ed., edited by O. P. John, R. W. Robins, and L. A. Pervin, New York: Guilford Press, p. 114-158.
- Kassarjian H.H. (1971), “Personality and Consumer Behaviour”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. VIII (November 1971), p. 409-18.
- Khani S., Imanikhah S. M., Gheysari H., Kamali S.S., Ghorbanzadeh T. (2013), “The Relationship of Appliance Consumer Personality Trait, Brand Personality, Brand Loyalty and Brand Equity in the Mobile Phone Industry”, International Journal of Fundamental Psychology and Social Sciences (IJFPSS), Vol 3, No 4, p. 63-70.
- Kim C. ., Han D., Park S. B. (2001), “The effect of brand personality and brand identification on brand loyalty: Applying the theory of social identification”, Japanese Psychological Research, Volume 43, Special Issue: Consumer behavior, No. 4, p. 195–206.
- Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2003), Marketing Management: international edition, Prentice Hall New Jersey.
- Kumar R., Luthra A., Datta G. (2006), “Linkages Between Brand Personality And Brand Loyalty: A Qualitative Study In An Emerging Market In The Indian Context”, South Asian Journal of Management, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 11-35.
- Kwong M. Z., Candinegara I. (2014), “Relationship between Brand Experience, Brand Personality, Consumer Satisfaction, and Consumer Loyalty of DSS F Brand”, iBuss Management Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 89-98.
- Liao Y. K., Wu W.Y., Amaya R., Adriana A., Lin Ju T. ,(2017), “Cognitive, Experiential, and Marketing Factors Mediate The Effect of Brand Personality on Brand Equity”, Social Behavior and Personality, Volume 45, Number 1, pp. 1-18.
- Lin L. Y. (2010), “The Relationship of Consumer Personality Trait, Brand Personality and Brand Loyalty: An Empirical Study of Toys and Video Games Buyers”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Volume 19, Number 1, p. 4–17
- Liu C. J., Liang H. Y. (2014), “The Deep Impression of Smartphone Brand on the Customers’ Decision Making”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, 338 – 343.
- Maehle N., Otnes C., Supphellen M. (2011), “Consumers’ Perceptions of the Dimensions of Brand Personality”, J. Consumer Behav., 10, p. 290–303.
- Malhotra, Naresh K. (1988), “Self Concept and Product Choice: An Integrated Perspective” Journal of Economic Psychology. Mar88, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p1. 28p.
- McCrae R.R., John O.P. (1992), “An introduction to the Five-Factor odel and its Applications”, J. Pers., 60(2), p.175-215.
- McCrae R.R., Costa P. T. (2008), ‘‘The Five-factor Theory of Personality.’’ In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 3rd ed., edited by O. P. John, R. W. Robins, and L. A. Pervin, New York: Guilford Press, p. 159- 181.
- Milas, G., & la i , B. (2007). Brand personality and human personality: Findings from ratings of familiar Croatian brands. Journal of Business Research, 60, 620−626.
- Nooradi M., Sadeghi T. (2015), “The Relationship of Personality Traits and Demographic Characteristics with the Performance of Samsung Mobile Phones Brand”, International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics, Vol 2, No 8, p. 838-845.
- Nunnaly J.C., Bernstein I. H. (1994), Psychometric Theory, Third Edition, McGraw Hill, New Yok, USA.
- Odin Y., Odin N., Florence P.V. (2001), “Conceptual and operational aspects of brand loyalty an empirical investigation”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 53, p. 75-84.
- Oliver R.L. (1997), Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer, New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
- Oliver R.L. (1999), “Whence Consumer Loyalty?” Journal of Marketing, 6 (Special Issue), p. 33-44.
- Park S. Y., Lee E. M. (2005),"Congruence Between Brand Personality and Self-Image, and the Mediating Roles of Satisfaction and Consumer-Brand Relationship on Brand Loyalty", Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, Volume 6, p. 39-45.
- Petruzzellis L. (2008), “Mobile phone choice: technology versus marketing. The brand effect in the Italian market”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 44 Issue: 5, p.610-634.
- Sata M. (2013), “Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior of Mobile Phone Devices”, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol 4, No 12, p. 103-112.
- Shaw H., Ellis D.A., Kendrick L.R., Ziegler F., Wiseman R. (2016), “Predicting Smartphone Operating System from Personality and Individual Differences”, Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, Vol. 19, N. 12, p. 727-732.
- Sirgy, M. J. (1982), “Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review”. Journal of Consumer Research, Dec82, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p. 287-300.
- Smit, E. G., van den Berge, E., & Franzen, G. (2002). Brands are just like real people! The development of SWOCC's brand personality scale. In F. Hansen, & L. B. Christensen (Eds.), Branding and Advertising (pp. 22−43). Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
- Sung Y., inkham S. F., “Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture- Specific Factors”, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), p. 4-350.
- Teimouri H., Fanae N., Jenab K., Khoury S., Moslehpour S. (2016), “Studying the Relationship between Brand Personality and Customer Loyalty: A Case Study of Samsung Mobile Phone”, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 1-10.
- Truong Y., Klink R. R., Simmons G., Grinstein A., Palmer M. (2017), “Branding strategies for high-technology products: The effects of consumer and product innovativeness”, Journal of Business Research, 70, p. 85–91.
- TUIK (2017), Turkish Statistical Institute, Telecommunication Statistics, (http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreIstatistikTablo.do?istab_id=1580 , accessed at 25.11.2017)
- Wu P.H., Lin, C.P (2016), “Learning to foresee the effects of social identity complexity and need for social approval on technology brand loyalty”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 111, p.188–197.
- Yeh C.H., Wang Y.S., Yieh K. (2016), “Predicting smartphone brand loyalty: Consumer value and consumer- brand identification perspectives”, International Journal of Information Management, 6, p. 245–257.